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Inventar a gratuidade

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A gratuidade, em suas múltiplas concepções, caracteriza bem um novo horizonte. Ela qualifica, sob o conceito de interesse geral ou sob o nome de BEM COMUM, o que pertence a todos, ou aquilo de que todos fazem uso. Nesse sentido, a gratuidade é constitutiva da comunidade política planetária. Mais ainda, ela é constitutiva de toda comunidade política, enquanto essa última nasce de uma tomada comum de recursos. Mas a gratuidade excede igualmente o comum ou o humano. É a gratuidade das coisas sem donos que, por mais distantes que estejam (estrelas ou cometas), passam a constituir também nossos recursos os mais necessários
(luz do sol). É em nome desse horizonte comum, dessas gratuidades, que numerosas lutas sociais e políticas aparecem hoje, usando mesmo desse outro sentido da gratuidade que encontramos na língua inglesa, free, significando assim que a tomada comum das determinações é também o momento da autodeterminação política.


A Gratuidade do Interesse Geral

A gratuidade do interesse geral, repousando sobre a redistribuição fiscal e recolocando Deus ou os deuses para a Comunidade, se inscreve – revista e aménagée pela escolástica medieval – na continuidade da idéia romana de gratuidade. No direito romano, aquilo que chamamos hoje de recursos naturais são então gratuitos e sagrados, e gratuitos porque sagrados, excedendo o humano em sua natureza ou em sua dimensão, esse último sendo um simples usuário, um usufrutador e não um proprietário da natureza. O mesmo vale para o domino publico e os serviços públicos do Estado, dos quais podemos nos beneficiar, posto que pertencem legalmente à comunidade nacional, mas que enfrentam finalmente uma gestão direta
pelos usuários. A partir disso, o domínio, assim como o serviço público, são privatizados pela potência pública que define a produtividade segundo os interesses (notadamente eleitorais) daqueles que a geram ou daqueles que estão em posição de desvia-lo em seu beneficio. Hariou foi o primeiro jurista a associar gratuidade e serviço publico. Segundo o Doyen de Toulouse, o serviço que está a cargo do interesse público deve ser organizado sobre um modo comunista e seu financiamento assegurado pela comunidade. Assim, a gestão do bem comum se ajusta ao interesse geral. "Os recursos são colocados em comum para que os serviços sejam tornados igualmente e gratuitamente a todos. Daí vem o caráter não lucrativo dos serviços públicos" (Hauriou). Mas por que um serviço, a principio não lucrativo, alimentado de recursos coletivos, é
transformado hoje em serviço lucrativo? Declara-se as vezes que a gratuidade tem efeitos perversos sobre um consumidor que, não sabendo o preço da gratuidade publica, ou se beneficiando sem esforço, nao respeita os bens culturais que ele comprou (como se os impostos não fossem suficientemente altos, fosse necessário pagar em dobro). E ainda – para pegar o exemplo dos transportes públicos urbanos - não bastasse pagá-los na roleta, é preciso também que o dinheiro levantado sirva a controlar o usuário. As pesquisas do grupo NADA mostram que, de fato, as receitas comerciais (constituídas das contas, mas também de outras fontes como publicidade, as locações dos espaços aos comerciantes de jornais, buffets e comércios diversos) são minoritários face aos financiamentos públicos, e que elas justificam, contudo, custosos dispositivos de controle e uma custosa bilheteria ( billeterie) sem falar da lucrativa e não contratual poluição publicitária imposta em todas as estações de metrô e ônibus. Uma prefeitura que gera o domínio publico comunal se apropria e privatiza a gestão desse domínio. Ela transforma o recurso coletivo em máquina produtiva submetida a imperativos de rendimento ou de retorno de investimento. Dessa maneira, ela desvia progressivamente as finalidades coletivas dos recursos comuns. Não basta que os recursos naturais e imateriais, presentes, passados e futuros sejam colocados em comum. É necessário também que essa tomada comum abstrata seja suportada pelo debate publico (rompendo a subordinação da sociedade ao Estado, tornando-se proprietários dos recursos comuns, regule também seu uso, em vez dos lugares dos "comunistas".

A Gratuidade do Bem Comum


Encaixotados na Res Publica, os bens comuns pertencem e são constituídos e regulamentados por sua potência pública. As Res Communis são então menos comuns se relacionadas a seu/sua ( maître – nota da tradução: aqui eu não sei se se refere à prefeitura ou ao dono), ao Estado que decide e dispõe delas, com ou sem mandato dos comunistas. Mas o encaixotamento das Res Communis na Res Publica pode igualmente adotar uma outra forma
com o federalismo ou o socialismo cooperativo, onde todos os consumidores são organizados em cooperativas de consumo, organizando cooperativas de "segundo nível" (Charles Gide) o processo de produção e distribuição. Nesse contexto, as coisas comuns servem de assento a uma vida comum federativa e cooperativa.

No código civil francês, as coisas comuns (eventualmente integradas ao domínio publico) se manifestam através de diversos status: os bens comunais (art. 542 cód. civil), as coisas comuns corporais (cód. civil 714), as coisas comuns incorporadas. Os bens comunais são aqueles
à propriedade e aos produtos dos quais os habitantes de uma ou diversas comunidades tem direito adquirido. Esses bens comunais representam, na França, algo como 60 mil quilômetros quadrados, eles são propriedade coletiva da comuna e não propriedade comunal. E é provavelmente pensando nos bens comunais que a Câmara Criminal da Corte de Cassação declarou que "a subtração por um dos comunistas de uma coisa comum constitui um roubo" (27/02/1836).
As coisas comuns são também elementos naturais como o ar, as praias ou as paisagens hoje (verses) ao domínio publico. Muitos desses recursos, que estavam há muito tempo não contados ( non comptes) estão hoje integrados nos cálculos econômicos: a produção da natureza foi avaliada em 55 milhões de dólares por ano por um grupo de cientistas do Instituto de Economia Ecológica da Universidade de Maryland, em 1997. E os planetas – como o fundo dos mares – durante muito tempo inscritos fora do direito comercial, poderiam, contudo, entrar nessa conta (soma). Associações industriais lutam para modificar o direito do céu, pensando já poderem explorar os recursos dos planetas do entorno. Da mesma forma, no direito prospectivo aparecem distintos tendendo a invalidar a generalidade da noção de bem comum genético, privatizado em suas particularidades produtivas (parece que podemos considerar que o material genético não seja uma coisa comum senão na medida em que ele concerne a um conjunto da espécie – revista de pesquisa jurídica, direito prospectivo, no 16, p.u. Marseille). Bens comunais, recursos
naturais, as coisas comuns são também incorporadas, culturais,
informacionais (idéias e palavras e notas musicais etc). Essas coisas fora do comercio não podem, ou não poderiam até pouco tempo atrás – ser vendidas: "No caso dos dados ( donnes) comuns (idéias, descobertas cientificas, palavras) cada um tendo um direito sobre os mesmos dados, ninguém pode impedir o acesso do outro. Ninguém tem reciprocamente necessidade de uma autorização para utiliza-los" (Isabelle Moine, 1997, p.364). Entre os bens imateriais, poderíamos imaginar que a moeda, coisa incorporada, cultural e informacional, considerada hoje ainda como um bem comercial, retorna à categoria das coisas fora do comercio, como a linguagem e as notas musicais... Sabemos que a propriedade intelectual representa 80% do valor das 500 primeiras empresas do Standard & Room`s Com Stock. A gratuidade está, contudo, inscrita nas práticas de consumo e de produção imaterial. Enquanto o copyright está fundado sobre a proteção do autor e se apresenta como um direito privado a propósito dos
bens que não tem valor senão para circular e serem apreciados, o copyleft está fundado sobre a liberdade dos usuários. A tarefa do Napster, e mais amplamente o desenvolvimento do peer to peer, tendem a provar que o copyright (malmene) os bens imateriais que (defiait) dois dos princípios fundamentais da política econômica: a raridade e o controle. Os dados numéricos são copiáveis ao infinito a custo quase zero. O produtor não (maîtrise) o usa dos dados que ele difunde e não pode impedir sua disseminação: a economia dos bens imateriais retorna por natureza da gratuidade no sentido forte (bens sem dono/maître) ou frágeis (cooperatividade). É necessário distinguir o dom da informação ou seu estabelecimento em um circuito de cooperação, de sua gratuidade. O doador endereça seu don de maneira () e cria eventualmente uma duvida, uma dependência, uma reciprocidade daquele que recebe. A gratuidade é uma disponibilizarão anônima ou de qualquer um. Em uma gratuidade anônima, os indivíduos são intercambiáveis. A circulação de bens ou de signos não é efetuada de uns contra os outros. Não há emissores nem receptores. A informação anônima, por exemplo, um agregado, um fundo
comum, um bem que todo mundo pode ter porque ele está acessível a todos. Seu principio não é o compartilhamento, nem a comunidade de informação, a troca de informação entre pessoas que se conhecem, mas a disponibilizarão sem espera de retorno e na indiferença face ao receptor. A informação anônima é produzida, difundida, coletada ou (ramassée) por não importa quem. Se se produzem encontros entre emissores e receptores, eles são breves e sem dia seguinte, sem
identidade nem reconhecimento, sem ( enjeu) nem projeto. As informações entram em conjunções temporárias induzindo a reagrupamentos aleatórios e provisórios, de emissores e de receptores em contextos de movimento. Em uma gratuidade qualquer, os indivíduos não são intercambiáveis: são não importa quem ou o que, mas eles são eles mesmos, plenamente singulares.
Há emissores concretos e receptores concretos (charnels). Os reagrupamentos se efetuam sobre modos intensivos e de afinidade, e não estatísticas ou aleatoriedade. O autor qualquer rompe com a ausência de qualidade do anonimato: ele se manifesta como potência.

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